GPS or International Positioning System is really a fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System. This system uses an artificial constellation of 24 medium Earth orbit satellites. These satellites transmit microwave signals, thus enabling a GPS receiver to find out its place, speed, direction and time. This system was developed by United states Department of Defense and was named as NAVSTAR GPS which was given by Mr. John Walsh.
This satellite constellation is managed by United states Air Force 50th Space Wing. The cost is roughly 750 US dollars every year, such as the maintenance price, replacement, analysis and development. After shoot down of Korean Air Lines Flight 007 in the year 1983, a directive was issued which made the GPS available for civilian use and continues to be used extensively since then. It’s turn out to be a very useful tool for creating maps, surveying landscapes, commerce and many scientific makes use of. In addition, it provides time reference which can be utilized in many applications which include study of earthquake and telecommunication network synchronization.
A GPS receiver simply calculates the distance between by itself and three more GPS satellite. Every satellite has an atomic clock in it continually communicates certain information containing its precise time, location of the transmitting satellite and also the almanac. The receiver then measures the reception time of the signal. Therefore the distance to every satellite is known. Understanding three such distances, a trilateration is formed. By using a fourth satellite, require for a clock at receiver is avoided.
The Global Positioning System is utilized in a variety of Army and Civilian Applications. It allows soldiers find their goals in a dark or totally unfamiliar territory and coordinate troop motion and supplies. GPS receivers which army personnel use are known as Commanders and Soldier Digital Assistants. A combination of GPS and communication through radio enables actual time automobile monitoring.
It is also used in marking targets as hostile and allows the precision guided ammunitions to permit them engage these targets with high accuracy. Air to Ground roles of army aircrafts use GPS to seek out targets. GPS also allows targeting for army weapons like ICBMs, Cruise missiles, precision guided missile. Artillery primarily based projectiles are embedded with GPS receivers and may withstand forces up to 12,000G. They are utilized for 155 mm Howitzers. Any Downed pilot can be easily situated if he has GPS receiver. It’s broadly utilized by army for reconnaissance and mapping. Some GPS satellites also have nuclear detonation detectors.
GPS assists civilians a great deal in surveying and navigation. Its ability to calculate nearby speed and orientation is extremely helpful. Time transfer is possible due to its ability to synchronize clock. A broadly used example of use of GPS is CDMA digital mobile phone. Every base uses a GPS timing receiver to synchronize the codes with different base stations and thus making it easy inter-cellular hand off and therefore assistance emergency phone calls and other numerous applications. GPS equipment has also revolutionized tectonics by measuring the fault motion during earthquakes.
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